Browse Exhibits (12 total)
Diese Ausstellung ist über die Publicity Deutsch-Amerikanischen Frauen in den Medien hatte. Dies zeigt, wie viel Migrantinnen ein Medienunter hatte. Das war wirklich groß für seine Zeit.Im späten 19. Jahrhundert und in den Anfang des 20. Jahrhunderts Frauen haben in der Regel nicht viel sagen oder irgendwelche Medien. Dies war aufgrund der mangelnden Rechte sie hatten.
How does a nation express independence? The eternal struggle of those countries who gained sovereignty, and those peoples who found, bought, or fought for freedom from slavery is the continued manifestation of this hard-earned autonomy, while simultaneously being culturally and historically linked to the very powers they have cast off. In Brazil, whose colonial era riches were the product of its status as the largest importer of African slaves, the most visible answer to this struggle has been a direct engagement with both sides of the story. From the syncretization of Catholicism with Yoruba theology to create Candomble and Umbanda, two religions at the heart of the Brazilian spiritual experience, to the visible inclusion of Afro-Brazilian figures in the Brazilian Baroque, itself a syncretization of establish European artistic and architectural conventions with the nationally and culturally specific needs of a nation across the sea. Following the abolition of slavery in 1888, and going into the 20th century, Brazilian artists continued this process of exploring, combining and undermining the artistic ideals of the dominant Euro-American art world.
During the 19th and 20th century, Brazil lavished an art collection of romanticism, realism, and neoclassicism. It was a period where modernistic and contemporary styles received both criticism and recognition on Brazilian soil. Individuals often exploited the natural resources for their material worth and the exotic appeal, such as foods available and the minerals buried in the mountains. Undervalued slaves found a hope by enlightening their creativity and ideas in a piece of paper. Names such as Tarsila do Amaral, Candido Portinari, and Nik Muniz are depicted in history as examples of risk takers in the manifestation of art.
Candido Portinari (1903-1962) revealed his talent at an early age and expanded his skills by incorporating neo-realism into his latest work. Two of his most popular pieces are “Coffee” and “The Mestizo” because they model the experience of the workers and their hard labor in the lands of their European masters.
Tarsila do Amaral (1886-1973) drew in controversy throughout her career as an artist that was not only wealthy and had no financial need based on the art, but from the fact that she was a woman practicing contemporary art. Her purpose for refuting surrealism reflected her desires to construct an artistic route that demonstrates her progression from dependence on European ideas or other foreign ideas to independence.
Vik Muniz (1962-Present) focuses on using the materials of his subjects lives to create multilayered portraits which not only address social and cultural issues he sees in Brazil, but also give back to the community, in that he donates the profits of his work to the communities he engages with. Muniz, who spent his young adulthood in Brooklyn, has set as a goal the amelioration of the effects of classism in Brazil through radical approach to art that moves away from the exclusive world of the “fine arts” and into a community driven model that integrates itself into real Brazilian lives.
Each of these artists, as well as their peers in the visual, literary, and performing arts, demonstrate the tension between a desire to create work that is intrinsically Brazilian while being undeniably influenced by their European counterparts, whether intentionally or more subtly. The tension is evident in not only their work itself, but also in the conversations around their work. In a country which proclaims color-blindness, how do wealth, race and social status intersect to privilege particular artists, or erase them from the canon? In a nation built on the backs of innumerable slaves, who benefits when art drawn from their experiences flourishes? This is the critical eye we must take as we examine products of the quest for independence.
Celarent, Barbara. 2010. "The Masters and the Slaves." American Journal Of Sociology 116, no. 1: 334-339. SocINDEX with Full Text, EBSCOhost (accessed April 4, 2016).
Hoobler, Ellen "Art of the African Diaspora in Latin America" (Course, Cornell College, Mount Vernon, IA, March 14-April 6, 2016).